SB180: Prostitution; juveniles engaged in commercial sexual conduct, participation in specialized services.


SENATE BILL NO. 180
AMENDMENT IN THE NATURE OF A SUBSTITUTE
(Proposed by the Senate Committee for Courts of Justice
on February 3, 2016)
(Patron Prior to Substitute--Senator Edwards)
A BILL to amend and reenact § 18.2-346 of the Code of Virginia, relating to prostitution; minors.

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia:

1. That § 18.2-346 of the Code of Virginia is amended and reenacted as follows:

§ 18.2-346. Prostitution; commercial sexual conduct; commercial exploitation of a minor; penalties.

A. Any person who, for money or its equivalent, (i) commits adultery, fornication, or any act in violation of § 18.2-361, performs cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by another person, or engages in anal intercourse or (ii) offers to commit adultery, fornication, or any act in violation of § 18.2-361, perform cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by another person, or engage in anal intercourse and thereafter does any substantial act in furtherance thereof is guilty of prostitution, which is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. Any person who offers money or its equivalent to another for the purpose of engaging in sexual acts as enumerated in subsection A and thereafter does any substantial act in furtherance thereof is guilty of solicitation of prostitution, which is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor. However, any person who solicits prostitution from a minor (i) 16 years of age or older is guilty of a Class 6 felony or (ii) younger than 16 years of age is guilty of a Class 5 felony.

C. In any delinquency proceeding under subsection A involving a juvenile where the juvenile expresses a willingness to participate in specialized services for those engaged in commercial sexual conduct, the court may continue the case and provide notice of the charge and the time and place for the next hearing to the local department of social services. A child in need of services petition may be filed on the juvenile's behalf pursuant to § 16.1-260. If a child in need of services petition is filed and the court finds that the juvenile is willing to participate in specialized services for those engaged in commercial sexual conduct, the court may proceed pursuant to § 16.1-278.4 and order specialized services for the juvenile. Such specialized services may include, but are not limited to, specialized housing, case management, integrated mental health and chemical dependency treatment, educational assistance, and any other available programs or services that, in the opinion of the court, may be best suited to the needs of the juvenile. In any instance where the court proceeds on a child in need of services petition, the court shall dismiss the delinquency petition.

SENATE BILL NO. 180

Offered January 13, 2016
Prefiled January 4, 2016
A BILL to amend and reenact §§ 9.1-902, 18.2-67.7, 18.2-346, and 19.2-305.1 of the Code of Virginia and to amend the Code of Virginia by adding in Article 8 of Chapter 2 of Title 2.2 a section numbered 2.2-224.2, by adding a section numbered 8.01-42.4, and by adding in Chapter 1.1 of Title 19.2 a section numbered 19.2-11.5, relating to trafficking in persons; penalties.
Patron-- Edwards

Referred to Committee for Courts of Justice

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia:

1. That §§ 9.1-902, 18.2-67.7, 18.2-346, and 19.2-305.1 of the Code of Virginia are amended and reenacted and that the Code of Virginia is amended by adding in Article 8 of Chapter 2 of Title 2.2 a section numbered 2.2-224.2, by adding a section numbered 8.01-42.4, and by adding in Chapter 1.1 of Title 19.2 a section numbered 19.2-11.5 as follows:

§ 2.2-224.2. Secretary of Public Safety and Homeland Security to convene an anti-trafficking committee.

The Secretary of Public Safety and Homeland Security, in collaboration with other Cabinet Secretaries, shall convene an Anti-Human Trafficking Coordinating Committee (the Committee) composed of representatives of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Alcoholic Beverage Control, Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, Criminal Justice Services, Education, Health, Health Professions, Social Services, State Police, Professional and Occupational Regulation, and Transportation, the Virginia Employment Commission, the Indigent Defense Commission, the Commonwealth's Attorneys' Services Council, the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund, and the Office of the Attorney General. Other agencies and parties with interest and expertise may be invited to participate in the work of the Committee. The Committee shall meet regularly to review and coordinate the agencies' work to identify and implement additional actions and strategies to further strengthen the Commonwealth's responses to human trafficking, including whether state agencies can broaden the availability of information and materials related to human trafficking via their websites, and to examine areas of public access to determine whether posting notices regarding the National Runaway Safeline and the National Human Trafficking Hotline would provide useful information to the public and, if so, to post such notices. The Committee shall review existing funding programs for barriers that may prohibit human trafficking victims from accessing services, including emergency and transitional housing, mental health and substance abuse, victim advocacy, and transportation assistance and shall seek potential solutions to any such barriers. The Committee shall annually report by December 1 to the Governor, the Chairmen of the House and Senate Committees for Courts of Justice, the Senate Committee on Finance, and the House Committee on Appropriations on its activities, accomplishments, and recommendations.

§ 8.01-42.4. Civil action for trafficking in persons.

A. As used in this section:

"Compensatory damages" includes damages for all of the defendant's acts prohibited under a felony provision of § 18.2-346, or under § 18.2-348, 18.2-349, 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, 18.2-357.1, or 18.2-368.

"Victim" means a person who was subjected to conduct that constituted trafficking in persons under a felony violation of § 18.2-346, or under § 18.2-348, 18.2-349, 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, 18.2-357.1, or 18.2-368, regardless of whether the perpetrator is identified, apprehended, prosecuted, or convicted.

B. A victim has a civil cause of action against the perpetrator of conduct that is prohibited under a felony violation of § 18.2-346, or under § 18.2-348, 18.2-349, 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, 18.2-357.1, or 18.2-368, whether or not the perpetrator has been charged or convicted for the alleged violation, for the compensatory damages incurred by the victim as a result of that conduct, in addition to the attorney fees and costs for bringing the action. If compensatory damages are awarded, a victim may also be awarded punitive damages.

C. No action shall be commenced under this section more than seven years after the later of the date on which the victim (i) was no longer subject to conduct prohibited by a felony provision of § 18.2-346, or under § 18.2-348, 18.2-349, 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, 18.2-357.1, or 18.2-368, or (ii) attained 18 years of age.

§ 9.1-902. Offenses requiring registration.

A. For purposes of this chapter:

"Offense for which registration is required" includes:

1. Any offense listed in subsection B;

2. Criminal homicide;

3. Murder;

4. A sexually violent offense;

5. Any offense similar to those listed in subdivisions 1 through 4 under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, the United States or any political subdivision thereof; and

6. Any offense for which registration in a sex offender and crimes against minors registry is required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted.

B. The offenses included under this subsection include any violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate:

1. § 18.2-63 unless registration is required pursuant to subdivision E 1; § 18.2-64.1; former § 18.2-67.2:1; § 18.2-90 with the intent to commit rape; former § 18.1-88 with the intent to commit rape; any felony violation of § 18.2-346; any violation of subdivision (4) of § 18.2-355; any Class 3 felony violation of § 18.2-356 or 18.2-357; any violation of subsection C of § 18.2-357.1; subsection B or C of § 18.2-374.1:1; former subsection D of § 18.2-374.1:1 as it was in effect from July 1, 1994, through June 30, 2007; former clause (iv) of subsection B of § 18.2-374.3 as it was in effect on June 30, 2007; subsection B, C, or D of § 18.2-374.3; or a third or subsequent conviction of (i) § 18.2-67.4, (ii) § 18.2-67.4:2, (iii) subsection C of § 18.2-67.5, or (iv) § 18.2-386.1.

If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2006, § 18.2-91 with the intent to commit any felony offense listed in this section; subsection A of § 18.2-374.1:1; or a felony under § 18.2-67.5:1.

2. Where the victim is a minor or is physically helpless or mentally incapacitated as defined in § 18.2-67.10, subsection A of § 18.2-47, clause (i) of § 18.2-48, § 18.2-67.4, subsection C of § 18.2-67.5, § 18.2-361, § 18.2-366, or a felony violation of former § 18.1-191.

3. § 18.2-370.6.

C. "Criminal homicide" means a homicide in conjunction with a violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate clause (i) of § 18.2-371 or § 18.2-371.1, when the offenses arise out of the same incident.

D. "Murder" means a violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate § 18.2-31 or § 18.2-32 where the victim is (i) under 15 years of age or (ii) where the victim is at least 15 years of age but under 18 years of age and the murder is related to an offense listed in this section or a violation of former § 18.1-21 where the victim is (a) under 15 years of age or (b) at least 15 years of age but under 18 years of age and the murder is related to an offense listed in this section.

E. "Sexually violent offense" means a violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate:

1. Clause (ii) and (iii) of § 18.2-48, former § 18.1-38 with the intent to defile or, for the purpose of concubinage or prostitution, a felony violation of subdivision (2) or (3) of former § 18.1-39 that involves assisting or aiding in such an abduction, § 18.2-61, former § 18.1-44 when such act is accomplished against the complaining witness's will, by force, or through the use of the complaining witness's mental incapacity or physical helplessness, or if the victim is under 13 years of age, subsection A of § 18.2-63 where the perpetrator is more than five years older than the victim, § 18.2-67.1, § 18.2-67.2, § 18.2-67.3, former § 18.1-215 when the complaining witness is under 13 years of age, § 18.2-67.4 where the perpetrator is 18 years of age or older and the victim is under the age of six, subsections A and B of § 18.2-67.5, § 18.2-370, subdivision (1), (2), or (4) of former § 18.1-213, former § 18.1-214, § 18.2-370.1, or § 18.2-374.1; or

2. § 18.2-63, § 18.2-64.1, former § 18.2-67.2:1, § 18.2-90 with the intent to commit rape or, where the victim is a minor or is physically helpless or mentally incapacitated as defined in § 18.2-67.10, subsection A of § 18.2-47, § 18.2-67.4, subsection C of § 18.2-67.5, clause (i) of § 18.2-48, § 18.2-361, § 18.2-366, or subsection C of § 18.2-374.1:1. An offense listed under this subdivision shall be deemed a sexually violent offense only if the person has been convicted or adjudicated delinquent of any two or more such offenses, provided that person had been at liberty between such convictions or adjudications;

3. If the offense was committed on or after July 1, 2006, § 18.2-91 with the intent to commit any felony offense listed in this section. An offense listed under this subdivision shall be deemed a sexually violent offense only if the person has been convicted or adjudicated delinquent of any two or more such offenses, provided that the person had been at liberty between such convictions or adjudications; or

4. Chapter 117 (18 U.S.C. § 2421 et seq.) of Title 18 of the United States Code or sex trafficking (as described in § 1591 of Title 18, U.S.C.).

F. "Any offense listed in subsection B," "criminal homicide" as defined in this section, "murder" as defined in this section, and "sexually violent offense" as defined in this section includes (i) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, the United States or any political subdivision thereof or (ii) any offense for which registration in a sex offender and crimes against minors registry is required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted.

G. Juveniles adjudicated delinquent shall not be required to register; however, where the offender is a juvenile over the age of 13 at the time of the offense who is tried as a juvenile and is adjudicated delinquent on or after July 1, 2005, of any offense for which registration is required, the court may, in its discretion and upon motion of the attorney for the Commonwealth, find that the circumstances of the offense require offender registration. In making its determination, the court shall consider all of the following factors that are relevant to the case: (i) the degree to which the delinquent act was committed with the use of force, threat or intimidation, (ii) the age and maturity of the complaining witness, (iii) the age and maturity of the offender, (iv) the difference in the ages of the complaining witness and the offender, (v) the nature of the relationship between the complaining witness and the offender, (vi) the offender's prior criminal history, and (vii) any other aggravating or mitigating factors relevant to the case. The attorney for the Commonwealth may file such a motion at any time during which the offender is within the jurisdiction of the court for the offense that is the basis for such motion. Prior to any hearing on such motion, the court shall appoint a qualified and competent attorney-at-law to represent the offender unless an attorney has been retained and appears on behalf of the offender or counsel has already been appointed.

H. Prior to entering judgment of conviction of an offense for which registration is required if the victim of the offense was a minor, physically helpless, or mentally incapacitated, when the indictment, warrant, or information does not allege that the victim of the offense was a minor, physically helpless, or mentally incapacitated, the court shall determine by a preponderance of the evidence whether the victim of the offense was a minor, physically helpless, or mentally incapacitated, as defined in § 18.2-67.10, and shall also determine the age of the victim at the time of the offense if it determines the victim to be a minor. When such a determination is required, the court shall advise the defendant of its determination and of the defendant's right to make a motion to withdraw a plea of guilty or nolo contendere pursuant to § 19.2-296. If the court grants the defendant's motion to withdraw his plea of guilty or of nolo contendere, his case shall be heard by another judge, unless the parties agree otherwise. Failure to make such determination or so advise the defendant does not otherwise invalidate the underlying conviction.

§ 18.2-67.7. Admission of evidence (Supreme Court Rule 2:412 derived from this section).

A. In prosecutions under this article, or under clause (iii) or (iv) of § 18.2-48, or under § 18.2-356, 18.2-370, 18.2-370.01, or 18.2-370.1, general reputation or opinion evidence of the complaining witness's unchaste character or prior sexual conduct shall not be admitted. Unless the complaining witness voluntarily agrees otherwise, evidence of specific instances of his or her prior sexual conduct shall be admitted only if it is relevant and is:

1. Evidence offered to provide an alternative explanation for physical evidence of the offense charged which is introduced by the prosecution, limited to evidence designed to explain the presence of semen, pregnancy, disease, or physical injury to the complaining witness's intimate parts; or

2. Evidence of sexual conduct between the complaining witness and the accused offered to support a contention that the alleged offense was not accomplished by force, threat or intimidation or through the use of the complaining witness's mental incapacity or physical helplessness, provided that the sexual conduct occurred within a period of time reasonably proximate to the offense charged under the circumstances of this case; or

3. Evidence offered to rebut evidence of the complaining witness's prior sexual conduct introduced by the prosecution.

B. Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit the accused from presenting evidence relevant to show that the complaining witness had a motive to fabricate the charge against the accused. If such evidence relates to the past sexual conduct of the complaining witness with a person other than the accused, it shall not be admitted and may not be referred to at any preliminary hearing or trial unless the party offering same files a written notice generally describing the evidence prior to the introduction of any evidence, or the opening statement of either counsel, whichever first occurs, at the preliminary hearing or trial at which the admission of the evidence may be sought.

C. Evidence described in subsections A and B of this section shall not be admitted and may not be referred to at any preliminary hearing or trial until the court first determines the admissibility of that evidence at an evidentiary hearing to be held before the evidence is introduced at such preliminary hearing or trial. The court shall exclude from the evidentiary hearing all persons except the accused, the complaining witness, other necessary witnesses, and required court personnel. If the court determines that the evidence meets the requirements of subsections A and B of this section, it shall be admissible before the judge or jury trying the case in the ordinary course of the preliminary hearing or trial. If the court initially determines that the evidence is inadmissible, but new information is discovered during the course of the preliminary hearing or trial which may make such evidence admissible, the court shall determine in an evidentiary hearing whether such evidence is admissible.

§ 18.2-346. Prostitution; commercial sexual conduct; commercial exploitation of a minor; penalties.

A. Any person who, for money or its equivalent, (i) commits adultery, fornication, or any act in violation of § 18.2-361, performs cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by another person, or engages in anal intercourse or (ii) offers to commit adultery, fornication, or any act in violation of § 18.2-361, perform cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by another person, or engage in anal intercourse and thereafter does any substantial act in furtherance thereof is guilty of prostitution, which is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. Any person who offers money or its equivalent to another for the purpose of engaging in sexual acts as enumerated in subsection A and thereafter does any substantial act in furtherance thereof is guilty of solicitation of prostitution, which is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor. However, any person who solicits prostitution from a minor (i) 16 years of age or older is guilty of a Class 6 felony or (ii) younger than 16 years of age is guilty of a Class 5 felony.

C. In any delinquency proceeding under subsection A involving a juvenile where the juvenile expresses a willingness to participate in specialized services for those engaged in commercial sexual conduct, the court may continue the case and provide notice of the charge and the time and place for the next hearing to the local department of social services. A child in need of services petition may be filed on the juvenile's behalf pursuant to § 16.1-260. If a child in need of services petition is filed and the court finds that the juvenile is willing to participate in specialized services for those engaged in commercial sexual conduct, the court may proceed pursuant to § 16.1-278.4 and order specialized services for the juvenile. Such specialized services may include, but are not limited to, specialized housing, case management, integrated mental health and chemical dependency, educational assistance, and any other available programs or services that, in the opinion of the court, may be best suited to the needs of the juvenile. In any instance where the court proceeds on a child in need of services petition, the court shall dismiss the delinquency petition.

§ 19.2-11.5. Victims of commercial sex trafficking; law-enforcement protocol.

A. On request from an individual who a law-enforcement officer reasonably believes is a victim of § 18.2-357.1 or a criminal offense required for the individual to qualify for a nonimmigrant T or U visa under 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(15)(T) or 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(15)(U), or for continued presence under 22 U.S.C. § 7105(c)(3), the law-enforcement officer, as soon as practicable after receiving the request, shall complete, sign, and give to the individual the Form I-914B or Form I-918B provided by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services on its website and ask a federal law-enforcement officer to request continued presence.

For the purposes of this section, "law-enforcement officer" means any full-time or part-time employee of a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic, or highway laws of the Commonwealth.

B. If the law-enforcement agency determines that an individual does not meet the requirements for the agency to comply with subsection A, the agency shall inform the individual of the reason and that the individual may make another request under subsection A and submit additional evidence satisfying the requirements.

§ 19.2-305.1. Restitution for property damage or loss; community service.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person convicted of a crime in violation of any provision in Title 18.2, which resulted in property damage or loss, shall be placed on probation or have his sentence suspended unless such person shall make at least partial restitution for such property damage or loss, or shall be compelled to perform community services, or both, or shall submit a plan for doing that which appears to the court to be feasible under the circumstances.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who, on or after July 1, 1995, commits, and is convicted of, a crime in violation of any provision in Title 18.2 shall make at least partial restitution for any property damage or loss caused by the crime or for any medical expenses or expenses directly related to funeral or burial incurred by the victim or his estate as a result of the crime, may be compelled to perform community services and, if the court so orders, shall submit a plan for doing that which appears to be feasible to the court under the circumstances.

B1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person, who on or after July 1, 2005 commits and is convicted of a crime in violation of § 18.2-248 involving the manufacture of any controlled substance, may be ordered, upon presentation of suitable evidence of such costs, by the court to reimburse the Commonwealth or the locality for the costs incurred by the jurisdiction, as the case may be, for the removal and remediation associated with the illegal manufacture of any controlled substance by the defendant.

B2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who, on or after July 1, 2015, commits and is convicted of a violation of § 18.2-138 for damage to the Capitol or any building, monument, statuary, artwork, or other state property in Capitol Square, or at any other property assigned to the Capitol Police, shall be ordered to pay restitution to the Commonwealth for the full amount of damages. Any person who, on or after July 1, 2015, commits and is convicted of a violation of § 18.2-405, 18.2-407, or 18.2-408 in Capitol Square, or at any other property assigned to the Capitol Police, shall be ordered to pay restitution to the Commonwealth for the full amount of damages to the Capitol or any building, monument, statuary, artwork, or other state property in Capitol Square, or at any other property assigned to the Capitol Police, to which damage is caused during such riot or unlawful assembly. In any prosecution under § 18.2-138, 18.2-405, 18.2-407, or 18.2-408, testimony of the Division of Engineering and Buildings of the Department of General Services or the Division of Risk Management shall be admissible as evidence of value or extent of damages or cost of repairs to the Capitol or any building, monument, statuary, artwork, or other state property in Capitol Square, or at any other property assigned to the Capitol Police. For the purposes of this subsection, "Capitol Square" means the grounds and the interior and exterior of all buildings in that area in the City of Richmond bounded by Bank, Governor, Broad, and Ninth Streets. "Capitol Square" includes the exterior of all state buildings that are at least 50 years old and bordering the boundary streets.

C. At or before the time of sentencing, the court shall receive and consider any plan for making restitution submitted by the defendant. The plan shall include the defendant's home address, place of employment and address, social security number and bank information. If the court finds such plan to be reasonable and practical under the circumstances, it may consider probation or suspension of whatever portion of the sentence that it deems appropriate. By order of the court incorporating the defendant's plan or a reasonable and practical plan devised by the court, the defendant shall make restitution while he is free on probation or work release or following his release from confinement. Additionally, the court may order that the defendant make restitution during his confinement, if feasible, based upon both his earning capacity and net worth as determined by the court at sentencing.

D. At the time of sentencing, the court shall determine the amount to be repaid by the defendant and the terms and conditions thereof. If community service work is ordered, the court shall determine the terms and conditions upon which such work shall be performed. The court shall include such findings in the judgment order. The order shall specify that sums paid under such order shall be paid to the clerk, who shall disburse such sums as the court may, by order, direct. Any court desiring to participate in the Setoff Debt Collection Act (§§ 58.1-520 through 58.1-535) for the purpose of collecting fines or costs or providing restitution shall, at the time of sentencing, obtain the social security number of each defendant.

E. Unreasonable failure to execute the plan by the defendant shall result in revocation of the probation or imposition of the suspended sentence. A hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of this Code relating to revocation of probation or imposition of a suspended sentence before either such action is taken.

E1. A defendant convicted of an offense under § 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1, or 18.2-374.3 shall be ordered to pay mandatory restitution to the victim of the offense in an amount as determined by the court. For purposes of this subsection, "victim" means a person who is depicted in a still or videographic image involved in an offense under § 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1, or 18.2-374.3.

The Commonwealth shall make reasonable efforts to notify victims of offenses under § 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1, or 18.2-374.3.

E2. A defendant convicted of an offense under § 18.2-357.1 shall be ordered to pay mandatory restitution to the victim of the offense in an amount equal to $58 per day for each day the victim was subjected to the conduct that constituted the offense under § 18.2-357.1.

F. If restitution is ordered to be paid by the defendant to the victim of a crime and the victim can no longer be located or identified, the clerk shall deposit any such restitution collected to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund for the benefit of crime victims. The administrator shall reserve a sum sufficient in the Fund from which he shall make prompt payment to the victim for any proper claims. Before making the deposit he shall record the name, last known address and amount of restitution due each victim appearing from the clerk's report to be entitled to restitution.

G. If restitution pursuant to § 19.2-305 or this section is ordered to be paid by the defendant to the victim of a crime or other entity, and the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund has made any payments to or on behalf of the victim for any loss, damage, or expenses included in the restitution order, then upon presentation by the Fund of a written request that sets forth the amount of payments made by the Fund to the victim or on the victim's behalf, the entity collecting restitution shall pay to the Fund as much of the restitution collected as will reimburse the Fund for its payments made to the victim or on the victim's behalf.

2. That the provisions of this act may result in a net increase in periods of imprisonment or commitment. Pursuant to § 30-19.1:4, the estimated amount of the necessary appropriation cannot be determined for periods of imprisonment in state adult correctional facilities; therefore, Chapter 665 of the Acts of Assembly of 2015 requires the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission to assign a minimum fiscal impact of $50,000. Pursuant to § 30-19.1:4, the estimated amount of the necessary appropriation cannot be determined for periods of commitment to the custody of the Department of Juvenile Justice.